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    Infrastructure | Tunnel | QA-QC Head

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  • SPT (Standard Penetration Test) (Field Test)

     The result of the Standard penetration test (SPT) is a number of blows N (penetration resistance), needed to penetrate a sampling device to the soil or rock by a so-called Interval of penetration depth 0,3 m (1 ft).

    The number of blows N measured during the SPT test is correlated for the reason of various testing devices and for the influence of the weight of overburden in sand. Corrected (correlated) value N60 is used in calculations.

    The correlated number of blows N60 is calculated according to this equation:

    where:

    Er

    -

    Energetic ratio of the testing device

    N

    -

    number of blows measured during SPT test

    CN

    -

    correlation for vertical stress

    λ

    -

    user’s correlation

    The energetic ratio of testing device Er represents the ratio of real energy Emeas and the calculated energy Etheor of the ram. It is not necessary to use a correlation for a standard SPT device (Mohr), because the efficiency of the machine is 60 % and correlation is performed to this value (the values measured during SPT test are used).

    Correlation CN for vertical stress σ'V - represents the influence of weight of overburden in sands. The values of the correction factor CN greater than 1.5 should not be used (according to EN ISO 22476-3 recommendations).

    Table of built-in types of correlations

    Type

    Type of consolidation

    Relative compactness l[%]

    Correlation factor CN

    Type 1 - EN ISO 22476-3 (Tab. A2)

    Normally consolidated

    40 - 60

    Type 2 - EN ISO 22476-3 (Tab. A2)

    60 - 80

    Type 3 - EN ISO 22476-3 (Tab. A2)

    Over-consolidated

    -

    Type 4 - EN ISO 22476-3

    Normally consolidated sands

    -

    Type 5 - FHWA (1998), Peck (1974)

    -

    -

    where:

    σ'V

    -

    Effective vertical stress

    User’s correlation λ [-] - represents the loss of energy due to the length of the system of rods, the impact of borehole diameter, or the influence of the sampling device.

    The result of SPT is its process plotted as a graph. The evaluation of standard penetration tests are used as input parameters for the analyses in the "Micropile" and "Spread Footing CPT" programs and for stratigraphic modeling in the "Stratigraphy" program.

    Standard penetration tests can be imported into the program as .txt data.

    The name of the test and the depth of the first point of the SPT is entered in the "New field test" dialog window. In the "Stratigraphy" program, the input of coordinations xyz is required.

    The number of blows is entered in the table.

    Literature:

    EN ISO 22476-3: Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing. Part 3: Standard penetration test, 2005.

    Roy E. Hunt: Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Handbook, Second Edition (CRC Press, 2005)

  • DPT (Dynamic Penetration Test) (Field Test)

     The result of the dynamic probe test (DPT) is a number of blows N, needed to penetrate a cone device to the soil or rock by a so-called interval of penetration depth.

    The Interval of penetration depth differs according to the type of dynamic probe test:

    • DPL – dynamic probing light
    • DPM – dynamic probing medium
    • DPH – dynamic probing heavy
    • DPSH - A – dynamic probing superheavy
    • DPSH - B – dynamic probing superheavy

    The interval of penetration depth is 100 mm for DPLDPM, and DPH and 100 or 200 mm for DPSH - A or DPSH - tests.

    The necessary torque moment to rotation by 1,5 turns or to reaching its maximum value should also be recorded and written down at least after every 1,0 m of the test. This value serves to eliminate the shear friction.

    The result of DPT is its process plotted as a graph. The evaluation of DPTs are used as input parameters for the stratigraphic modeling in the "Stratigraphy" program.

    The results of DPTs can be imported into the program as .txt data.

    The name of the test and the depth of the first point of the DPT is entered in the "New field test" dialog window. In the "Stratigraphy" program, the input of coordinations xyz is required.

    The number of blows and moment is entered in the table.









    Literature:

    EN ISO 22476-3: Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing. Part 2: Dynamic probing test, 2005.

    Roy E. Hunt: Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Handbook, Second Edition (CRC Press, 2005)

  • CPT (Cone Penetration Tests) (Field Test)

     The cone penetration test (CPT, CPTu) is based on pushing a penetration cone using a system of penetration rods with constant velocity (20 - 25 mm/s) into the soil. During the penetration test the values of the cone resistance qc and the local skin friction fs, respectively are recorded. The cone resistance thus represents in general the resistance against penetration of a cone spike into the soil (subsoil). The diameter of the tip of the cone spike is typically in the range of 25 - 50 mm.

    The cone resistance qc represents the ratio of the measured force on the cone tip Qc and the area of the normal projection of the cone tip Ac.

    The local skin friction fs represents the ratio of the measured force on the friction of sleeve Fs and the area of its skin As.

    The result of the cone penetration test is its distribution plotted as a graph.

    Cone penetration tests (CPT) serve as an input parameter for the analyses in the "Pile CPT" and "Spread Footing CPT" programs and for stratigraphic modeling in the "Stratigraphy" program.

    The CPT can be imported into the program using the "Import" button. The procedure of an import of table data (*.txt) is more described herein.

    The name of the test and the depth of the first point of the CPT is entered in the "New field test" dialog window. In the "Stratigraphy" program, the input of coordinates xyz is required.

    The values of measured cone resistance qc are entered in the table.

    When calculating the pile bearing capacity according to Schmertmann's theory, local friction fs must be entered.

    When performing the classification of soils, the values of pore pressure u2 must be entered. If the pore pressure was not measured (CPTu), it can be calculated from input GWT by pressing the button "Calculate u2".


    Literature:

    EN ISO 22476-1: Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing. Part 1: Electrical cone and piezocone penetration test, 2013.

    EN ISO 22476-12: Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing. Part 12: Mechanical cone penetration test (CPTM), 2009.

    Roy E. Hunt: Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Handbook, Second Edition (CRC Press, 2005)

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